This book contains a wealth of information, beginning with a history of and introduction to the field of evolutionary ecology and contains a bibliography of more than 1, references. By John N. Thompson [Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ]. Yellow Fever, Black Goddess: The Coevolution of People and Plagues Intended for an audience with at least a college-level understanding of genetics and evolutionary biology, this book discusses in great detail the adaptations infectious agents have made in coevolving with their human hosts.
By Christopher Wills [Cambridge, Mass. Convergent Evolution This diagram illustrates convergent evolution, the process by which species evolved in different parts of the globe independently. They share similar traits and fill similar niches, but they occupy different continents. Convergence: Marsupials and Placentals This graphic illustrates some of the marsupial mammals in Australia and placental mammals in North America.
Even though they are not closely related, these mammals look alike because they have adapted to similar ecological roles. Australian Fauna This site provides a brief account of the evolutionary history of the three main groups of mammals monotremes, marsupials, placentals. A simple table comparing placental and marsupial species that have evolved in parallel is also included.
Birds and DNA Using photos of a variety of bird species, this site explains how grouping organisms on the basis of appearance can lead to errors in phylogenetic determination, while groupings based on DNA sequence analysis can "see past" convergently evolved morphologies to give accurate phylogenies. Hosted by Museum Victoria.
Follow links to additional resources and classroom exercises appropriate for grades Hosted by PBS. Shaking the Family Tree This site describes two recent studies on the relationships between the various species of placental mammals that have evolved in parallel for millions of years and provides references for the original papers. Only subscribers can view full-text articles online. Hosted by Nature. The Three Solutions to Flight This site provides an overview of convergence in adaptations for flight and links to individual discussions that thoroughly explain how each group has taken wing.
Hosted by the University of California Museum of Paleontology. Some interesting examples of convergent features are cited, followed by a thorough discussion of the causes and consequences of convergence. Hosted by the Cleveland Museum of Natural History. Function, Phylogeny, and Fossils: Miocene Hominoid Evolution and Adaptations Written by 22 specialists for an advanced audience, this volume discusses the adaptations and phylogenetic relationships among the Hominoidea superfamily.
The book also provides excellent general discussions of patterns and processes in parallel and convergent evolution. Edited by David R. Begun, Carol V. Ward, and Michael D. Rose [New York: Plenum Press, ]. Asexual Reproducers This segment explores the benefits and pitfalls of cloning as a means of reproduction. From Evolution: "Why Sex? The Red Queen An example of the Red Queen hypothesis, the sexual population of Mexican Poeciliid fish are able to keep up with a changing environment, while the asexual populations are not as successful.
Evolution of the Dog Images of different breeds of dogs. Domesticated dogs provide an example of humans acting as natural "selectors," shaping different types for different purposes. Variation: Snails This image shows the variation in shell pattern and color within a single species of tree snail. Are Mutations Harmful? This site presents the current understanding of genetic mutations, including types, mechanisms, and effects.
The bibliography of original research papers is extensive. On the Tendency of Varieties to Depart Indefinitely This site includes the full-text, original version of Alfred Russel Wallace's manuscript in which he argues that different varieties, and ultimately species, can evolve from a single parent species.
Even though Wallace does not explicitly mention inheritance, his argument relies on the concept. Hosted by the University of Bergen, Norway. Online Mendelian Inheritance In Animals OMIA This up-to-date searchable catalog describes the genes that influence phenotypic traits of animals, from alpacas to zebrafish. Search results are summaries of recent scientific publications that provide information about the genes influencing a phenotypic trait, and accompanying links lead to maps of the chromosomal location of the genes of interest.
Hosted by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Origin, Adaptation, and Types of Corn This site is a compendium of research summaries primary sources are not cited on the page detailing the evolutionary history of corn, as well as the varieties that currently exist throughout the world.
Hosted by the University of Maryland. Hosted by the University of Glasgow. Random Genetic Drift This article is an excellent summary of current knowledge on genetic drift, a major omission from Darwin's original theory and an important mechanism of evolution.
Variation Under Domestication This site includes chapter 1 of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species , in which he explains heritable variations seen among domesticated plant and animal species. Hosted by literature. Variation Under Nature This site includes chapter 2 of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species , in which he discusses phenotypic variations observed among non-domesticated species.
Inheritance in Dogs Written in layman's terms, this book thoroughly describes the principles of genetic inheritance in dogs. It's an excellent reference for dog breeders and owners of purebreds, which are most likely to exhibit hereditary dysfunctions. By Ojvind Winge [Ithaca, N. Sex and the Single Guppy Play in our streams and see how exhibitionism has an evolutionary payoff in this simulation of Endler's experiment.
Shockwave get plug-in. The Mating Game Help our contestants pass their genes down the evolutionary line as you discover the varied mating behaviors of living things. Jacanas and Polyandry In response to the threat of crocodiles, female wattled jacanas have evolved an unusual reproductive strategy: polyandry, or "many males. Songbird Infidelity Female songbirds take a chance when they are non-monogamous, but their offspring benefit from the genetic variation -- they have a better survival rate.
Tale of the Peacock The peacock provides a classic example of sexual selection, the force behind nature's extravagances. Adaptive Radiation: Darwin's Finches Finches on the Galapagos Islands have evolved to exploit almost every possible niche. This diagram shows the range of food sources available on the island and the different beak shapes adapted to exploit each of them.
Bachelor Uncles In this image a peacock displays for a peahen. Male peacocks work together to attract females in communal mating groups. Paul Ewald discusses applying principles of evolution to reduce the harm of infectious diseases. Finch Beak Data Sheet This graphic presents data from the Galapagos Islands, showing that a severe drought put selective pressure on the population of Darwin's finches and resulted in a change in the average beak size in the next generation.
Evolution in Action This interactive feature shows how random mutations can lead to species-wide change. The "world" presented in this feature is abstract -- colored creatures placed within a colored environment. The user can change the environment the background color and observe how these changes affect the survival and reproduction of the different "creatures".
Evolution and Chance This site addresses the frequently misunderstood role of chance, or random mutation and genetic drift, in evolution and also discusses the importance of natural selection and genetic inheritance. How Females Choose Their Mates This entertaining and clearly written article explains in detail how females select mates, citing examples from the primary literature.
Hosted by Scientific American. Morph Lab Starting with an assortment of artificial life forms, this game lets you choose which life form survives after each round, simulating the role of natural selection in evolution. A background on how evolution takes place in the game is included in the instructions.
Hosted by fusebox. Natural Selection In chapter 4 of On the Origin of Species , Charles Darwin masterfully explains the effects of natural including sexual selection on species variants, logically arguing how selection could produce a structure as complex as the vertebrate eye.
Natural Selection: Modes of Selection This tutorial offers definitions of directional, disruptive, and stabilizing selection, as well as a simulation that shows how each selection type affects a population of colored dots over time. Hosted by EvoTutor. Struggle for Existence In this chapter of On the Origin of Species , Charles Darwin outlines the mechanisms underlying natural selection.
The Case of the Irish Elk This article describes and shows fossil images of the extinct Irish elk, whose immense antlers are thought to have been a product of sexual selection. Adaptation and Natural Selection This classic book clearly rebutted the notion of group versus individual selection, which had become a serious challenge to Darwinian theory. By George C. Williams [Princeton, N. Ecology and Evolution of Darwin's Finches This classic book details the findings of Peter and Rosemary Grant, who made firsthand observations of the evolution of Darwin's finches on the Galapagos Islands.
By Peter Grant [Princeton, N. Natural Selection: Domains, Levels, and Challenges In this book written for advanced students of evolutionary biology, the author provides a technical discussion of the theoretical issues of selection. Williams [Cambridge: Oxford University Press, ].
The Beak of the Finch This book is a beautifully written chronicle of more than three decades of study of evolution observed firsthand among the Galapagos finches. Natural selection is the cornerstone of Darwin's theory of evolution; adaptations are the traits that allow organisms to survive the selection process. This set of resources includes books, articles, and Web links that explore various aspects of these pivotal interrelated concepts.
Adaptation Adaptive compromise Coevolution Convergent evolution Heritable variation Natural and sexual selection. Featured Multimedia Resources. Resource Type: Web Activity. Adaptive Compromise. Flash get plug-in. Audio get plug-in. Convergent Evolution. Here you will find learning games, review games, virtual labs and quizzes that will help you to learn about cells, ecology, genetics, physiology, and much more!
Note: If you are a teacher, please check out the teacher section for ways to use the site to increase student engagement and learning. Remember, everything on this site is completely FREE to use! Find out how the body works by playing fun interactive games and performing awesome virtual labs!
The digestive, nervous, immune, endocrine, cardiovascular, excretory, and other systems await! All living things are made of cells! Learn how they work and what they are made of! Cell organelles such as the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ribosomes, lysosomes and many more can be found here. You'll be amazed at what happens in each of your cells! Ecology is the study of how living things interact with one another and with their environments. Ecosystems, communities, populations, habitats, niches, pollution, and much more are studied by ecologists.
Review and learn something new about the living world in these games and activities! Living things change over time! Learn about and review the mechanisms that cause genetic change in populations, as well as several lines of evidence for change over time. Also, explore how organisms are classified into groups and named. Genes are passed on from one generation to the next!
Learn how this occurs through fun, interactive games and activities that explore genetics and meiosis! Living organisms perform chemical reactions all day, every day! These chemical reactions are what keep you alive! Learn about DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, and other major biological molecules like lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.
Learn about and review the mechanisms that cause genetic change in populations, as well as several lines of evidence for change over time. Also, explore how organisms are classified into groups and named. Genes are passed on from one generation to the next! Learn how this occurs through fun, interactive games and activities that explore genetics and meiosis!
Living organisms perform chemical reactions all day, every day! These chemical reactions are what keep you alive! Learn about DNA, RNA, protein synthesis, and other major biological molecules like lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates.
Sponsored Links. YouTube Channel A growing list of animations to help you learn about Biology! What is BioMan Biology? Cells All living things are made of cells! Ecology Ecology is the study of how living things interact with one another and with their environments. Evolution and Classification Living things change over time! Genetics and Meiosis Genes are passed on from one generation to the next!
First-person shooters have become popular multiplayer games; Battlefield and Counter-Strike have little or no single-player gameplay. This category of games requires multiple machines to connect via the Internet; before the Internet became popular, MUDs were played on time-sharing computer systems and games like Doom were played on a LAN. During the s, as the number of Internet users increased, two new video game genres rapidly gained worldwide popularity — multiplayer online battle arena and battle royale game , both designed exclusively for multiplayer gameplay over the Internet.
Gamers refer to latency using the term " ping ", after a utility which measures round-trip network communication delays by the use of ICMP packets. A player on a DSL connection with a ms ping can react faster than a modem user with a ms average latency. Other problems include packet loss and choke, which can prevent a player from "registering" their actions with a server. In first-person shooters, this problem appears when bullets hit the enemy without damage. The player's connection is not the only factor; some servers are slower than others.
Beginning with the Sega NetLink in , Game. Many mobile phones and handheld consoles also offer wireless gaming with Bluetooth or similar technology. By the early s online gaming had become a mainstay of console platforms such as Xbox and PlayStation.
In modern console , arcade and personal computer games , "multiplayer" implies play with several controllers plugged into one game system. Home-console games often use split screen , so each player has an individual view of the action important in first-person shooters and in racing video games ; most arcade games, and some console games since Pong , do not.
Nearly all multiplayer modes on beat 'em up games have a single-system option, but racing games have started to abandon split-screen in favor of a multiple-system, multiplayer mode. Turn-based games such as chess also lend themselves to single system single screen and even to a single controller. The term "local co-op" refers to local multiplayer games played in a cooperative manner on the same system; these may use split-screen or some other display method.
Players rotate using the input device to perform their turn such that each is taking a turn on the "hotseat". Asymmetrical multiplayer is a type of gameplay in which players can have significantly different roles or abilities from each other; enough to provide a significantly different experience of the game.
In games with "soft asymmetry", the players have the same basic mechanics such as movement and death , yet have different roles in the game. Online cheating in gaming usually refers to modifying the game experience to give one player an advantage over others such as Aimbot in shooting games. Cheating in video games is often done via a third-party program that modifies the game's code at runtime to give one or more players an advantage.
In other situations, it is frequently done by changing the game's files to change the game's mechanics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Video game where multiple players can play. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Cheating in online games. Next Generation. Imagine Media. July There have been multiplayer electronic games since the dawn of computing. Space War! So was Nolan Bushnell's pioneering coin-op Pong. Retrieved 18 October Retrieved Retrieved December 19, Retrieved June 1, Multiplayer video games.
History of online games History of massively multiplayer online games. Esports Online game Browser game Social networking service. Concepts of video games. Glossary of video game terms. Health Life Experience point Magic.
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